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Thursday, 28 June 2018

Lewis W. Hine: Kid Stuff

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Junk gatherers, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

I   Lewis W. Hine: Child Scavengers

 

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Street kids, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Boys of the Dumps, South Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909


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Patching up a meal, Boston slums, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Tony on his way home from the market bringing chicken heads and feet to sell to the soap man, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909


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Garbage gleaners among ash barrels, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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"Gimme a smoke" -- street boys, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909


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Swiping behind the cop's back, Boston. Massachusetts, October 1909

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Picking over ash barrels, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909


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Boy woodpicker loading, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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 Mister, give me a lift? Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Boy woodpickers under way, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Little girl woodpickers making up a load, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Bringing home the wood, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Boy woodpicker resting, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Carrying home decayed refuse from markets, Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Boys picking over garbage on "the Dumps", Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Boys and girls working on "the Dumps", Boston, Massachusetts, October 1909

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Scavenger toting wood, Fall River, Massachusetts, 21 June 1916
 
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Toting wood, Fall River, Massachusetts, 16 June 1916

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Scavengers, Fall River, Massachusetts, 16 June 1916

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On the Pleasant Street Dump, Fall River, Massachusetts, 21 June 1916

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Boy collecting discarded newspapers to sell to store-keepers, Union Square, New York City, July 1910

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Pine Street Dump scavengers, Fall River, Massachusetts, 22 June 1916

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Scavenger, Chicopee Falls. Massachusetts, 29 June 1916
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Blind beggar, Lawton, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

blinded by the light


And then it is
the night -- the street -- exposure
to the past -- to history

the spoils -- the same -- once
again, over again
the same --

just later -- he was born
blind
mister
[John Dowers, 7 years old, lives at 108 W. Frisco St. Starts out at 5 a.m. some days. Father is blind and sells newspapers. John is a pretty good beggar. Was seen trying to borrow a dollar from the bank to "get father a watch" (father is blind).]  Location: [Oklahoma City, Oklahoma]

John Dowers, 7 years old, lives at 108 W. Frisco St. Starts out at 5 a.m. some days. Father is blind and sells newspapers. John is a pretty good beggar. Was seen trying to borrow a dollar from the bank to "get father a watch" (father is blind). Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 4 March 1917

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Play-time at the Oklahoma School for the Blind. Children have a great deal of freedom. Muskogee, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, March 1917

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Some original play houses conceived and executed by girls at the Oklahoma School for the Blind, Muskogee, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, March 1917

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Blind man and his youthful guide, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

III  Lewis W. Hine: An Enforced Rest

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An Enforced Rest. Harry Swope, aged 15, 426 Elm Street, Newport, Kentucky. Carrying heavy bundles of paper for a News and Stationery Company: photo by Lewis W. Hine, August 1908

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13-year-old boy, Edgar Kitchen, working for Bingham Bros. Dairy. He gets $3 a week; is not working for his own parents. Starts on the wagon at 7 A.M.; works seven days in the week driving the wagon, and on the farm six afternoons
. Bowling Green, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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Helper on a dairy wagon, Bowling Green, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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13-year-old laundry boy driving wagon, Bowling Green, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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Delivery boy for paint store, Bowling Green, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

IV  Lewis W. Hine: Where the Boys Are

 


Where the boys spend their money. St. Louis, Missouri: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), May 1910



Bundle boy. St. Louis, Missouri: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), May 1910


Bootblack, City Hall Park, New York City: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), 25 July 1924


5:00 A.M., Sunday. Newsboys starting out with papers from McIntyres Branch, Chestnut and 16th Streets, St. Louis, Missouri: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), 8 May 1910


Group of Breaker Boys in #9 Breaker, Hughestown Borough, Pennsylvania Coal Company. Smallest boy is Angelo Ross. Pittston, Pennsylvania: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), January 1911


 

Street gang, corner Margaret and Water Streets, 4:30 P.M., Springfield, Massachusetts: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), 27 June 1916
 

Vance, a Trapper Boy, 15 years old. Has trapped for several years in a West Virginia coal mine at a wage of $.75 a day for 10 hours work. All he does is to open and shut this door: most of the time he sits here idle, waiting for the cars to come. On account of the intense darkness in the mine, the hieroglyphics on the door were not visible until plate was developed: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), September 1908


Eagle and Phoenix Mill, Columbus, Georgia. "Dinner-toter" waiting for the gate to open. This is carried on more in Columbus than in any other city I know, and by smaller children. Many of them are paid by the week for doing it, and carry, sometimes, ten or more times a day. They go around in the mill, often help tend to the machines, which often run at noon, and so learn the work. A teacher told me the mothers expect the children to learn this way, long before they are of proper age: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), April 1913  


Glass works, midnight, Indiana: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), August 1908


A Little "Shaver". Indianapolis Newsboy, 41 inches high. Said he was 6 years old. Witness, E. N. Clopper. Indianapolis, Indiana: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), August 1908


John Howell, an Indianapolis newsboy, makes $.75 some days. Begins at 6 a.m., Sundays. Lives at 215 W. Michigan Street. Indianapolis, Indiana: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), August 1908


Fruit Vendors, Indianapolis Market. Witness, E. N. Clopper. Indianapolis, Indiana: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), August 1908 


Manuel, the young shrimp-picker, five years old, and a mountain of child-labor oyster shells behind him. He worked last year. Understands not a word of English. Dunbar, Lopez, Dukate Company. Biloxi, Mississippi: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), February 1911



Amos is 6 and Horace 4 years old. Their father, John Neal is a renter and raises tobacco. He said (and the owner of the land confirmed it) that both these boys work day after day from "sun-up to sun-down" worming and suckering, and that they are as steady as a grown-up. Albaton, Warren County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), 19 August 1916


Lunch Time, Economy Glass Works, Morgantown, West Virginia. Plenty more like this, inside: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), October 1908
 

Messenger boy working for Mackay Telegraph Company. Said fifteen years old. Exposed to Red Light dangers. Waco, Texas: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), September 1913


Newsie, "flipping cars". Boston, Massachusetts: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), October 1909


Young Cigarmakers in Englehardt and Company, Tampa, Florida. These boys looked under 14. Work was slack and youngsters were not being employed much. Labor told me in busy times many small boys and girls are employed. Youngsters all smoke. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Tampa, Florida
: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), January 1909

  

Brown McDowell, 12 year old usher in Princess Theatre. Works from 10 A.M. to 10 P.M. Can barely read; has reached the second grade in school only. Investigator reports little actual need for earnings. Birmingham, Alabama
: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), October 1914




Shooting craps. Providence, Rhode Island
: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), November 1912



 

Morris Levine, 212 Park Street. 11 years old and sells papers every day -- been selling five years. Makes 50 cents Sundays and 30 cents other days. Burlington, Vermont: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), 17 December 1916


 

A 9 year old boy, Jo Cafarella, 39 Warren Street, Somerville, Massachusetts. His sister Lena, 10 years, and Mary Lazzaro, 13 years old, his cousin, live at 17 South Street. This is typical of their work. Very few boys work on crochet, but he has for 2 years: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), August 1912
 

Pin boys in Les Miserables Alleys. Frank Jarose, 7 Fayette Street, Mellens Court, said 11 years old, made $3.72 last week. Joseph Philip, 5 Wall Street, said 11 years old, and works until midnight every week night; said he made $2.25 last week and $1.75 the week before. Willie Payton, 196 Fayette Street, said 11 years old, made over $2 last week, works there every night until midnight. Lowell, Massachusetts: photo by Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940), October 1911

V  Lewis W. Hine: Child Labor, Kentucky. 1916

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Estice Webb Herrmann, who left the seventh grade of the Elizabethtown, Kentucky Public School in October 1915, soon after commencing the grade, to be married. Was only 15 years old. Now living on a small farm far from neighbors and with no one but her husband and mother-in-law. She is standing with her husband. White Mills vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 6 May 1916

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Estice Webb Herrmann, who left the seventh grade of the Elizabethtown, Kentucky Public School in October 1915, soon after commencing the grade, to be married. Was only 15 years old. Now living on a small farm far from neighbors and with no one but her husband and mother-in-law. White Mills vicinity, Kentucky
: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 6 May 1916

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Willie Nall, 11 years old; Raymond Jones, 10 years old; Denver Jones, 5 years old; plowing on farm. They had just finished a job of hauling. Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky
: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 5 May 1916

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Zelina and Florence Richards, 12 and 13 years old, doing the family wash. Nicholas County, Kentucky
: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 8 August 1916

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Charles Hoffman said he was 13 years old and in the sixth grade. At the plow after school.
Elizabethtown, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 8 May 1916

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James and Frank Crawford taking milk to town for father, a dairyman. Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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"Driving boy" taking pigs to market. Says he is 14 years old and has been working with pigs for 9 years. Horace Harper, 320 West 8 Street, Winchester, Kentucky. Goes to school in Paris, Kentucky.: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 15 September 1916

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Housing tobacco in barn of W.L. Fugate. Will go to Schoolsville School but it has not opened on account of repairs. Hedges Station, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 15 September 1916

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Lester Daniel, right, 12 years old, and 17-year old cousin stripping tobacco. Woodburn, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, October 1916

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Hazel family (very poorly educated). Children have not been to school this year although living within 1 1/2 miles of school 5-7. Bowling Green vicinity,
Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 10 November 1916

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Mrs. J. L. Hazel and children stripping tobacco. A very interesting and poorly educated family. Bowling Green vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 10 November 1916

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Topping tobacco. Roland Lowe, 13 years old, in field with two brothers. There are 7 boys and 2 girls in the family, and 4 are in school. Father, Mose Lowe, Rural Route 1, Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky. Children go to Pretty Run School, Division 2, Clark County, but Roland and Bush, 14 years old have not started yet -- about 3 weeks after it opened. Father rents this farm of 160 acres
: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 5 August 1916


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George Barbee, 13 years old, topping tobacco. Lives near Bell School. Nicholas County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 8 August 1916

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Bell School opened yesterday, only 8 in school. Probably it will be closed. Nicholas County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 8 August 1916

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Anthoston School. A most dilapidated shack; unlocked, open to the weather, windows broken out and furniture knocked about. Opens September 6th. Henderson County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 22 August 1916

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Anthoston School which opened September 5th. 54 present out of an enrollment of 62; Census 84. Work is interfering. Henderson County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 13 September 1916

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Rock Spring School which opened September 5th. Census 49, Enrollment of 28, attendance 25. Expect an enrollment of 35. Tobacco is chief cause of absence. Henderson County, Kentucky
: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 13 September 1916

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Indian Field School, Clark County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 7 August 1916

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Bush School, Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, August 1916

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Red Bud School, Rockcastle County, Kentucky. County Supervisor in doorway. Teacher thought 20 absent on account of work, etc.: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 15 August 1916

 
VI  Lewis W. Hine: Junk Gatherers (Just Kids)

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A pair of truants, tending their father's mules, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Photo taken during school hours, near Oklahoma City. Boys are 9 and 11 years old: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Eleven-year-old bakery worker Glenn Dungey. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Eleven-year-old bakery worker Glenn Dungey. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Alley scene, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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 Junk gatherers, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Swipin' coal from the freight yards. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Just kids. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

[Small boy standing outdoors with dog].  Location: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Small boy standing outdoors with dog, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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A pair of truants, tending their father's mules, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Photo taken during school hours, near Oklahoma City. Boys are 9 and 11 years old: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

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Eleven-year-old bakery worker Glenn Dungey. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: photo by Lewis W. Hine, April 1917

VII  Day's Work of the Humphrey Children, Elizabethtown, Kentucky

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The day's work of Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Felix and Estelle Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Felix Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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The day's work of Felix Humphrey, Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, May 1916

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Calvin Humphrey family, Elizabethtown vicinity, Kentucky: photo by Lewis W. Hine, 7 May 1916

Photos from National Child Labor Committee Collection, Library of Congress

7 comments:

TC said...

Born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Lewis W. Hine studied sociology before moving to New York in 1901 to work at the Ethical Culture School, where he took up photography to enhance his teaching practices. By 1904 he had begun a series of photographs documenting the arrival of immigrants at Ellis Island; this project, along with his pictures of harsh labor conditions published in the Pittsburgh Survey, brought his work to the attention of the National Child Labor Committee. He served as its official photographer from 1911 to 1916, and later traveled with the Red Cross to Europe, where he documented the effects of World War I in France and the Balkans for Red Cross Magazine. After returning to the United States in 1922, he accepted commercial assignments, produced another series on Ellis Island immigrants, and photographed the construction of the Empire State Building. Several of these construction pictures were published in Men at Work (1932), a book celebrating the individual worker's interaction with machines in the modern world. Despite the success of this book, Hine's financial situation became desperate and his photography was virtually forgotten. Berenice Abbott and Elizabeth McCausland learned of his work through the New York City Photo League and mounted a traveling retrospective exhibition of his work to revive interest in it in 1939.

Hine is best known for the documentary images of child labor practices that he produced under the aegis of the National Child Labor Committee from 1911 to 1916. These photographs not only have been credited as important in the passing of child labor laws, but also have been praised for their sympathetic depiction of individuals in abject working conditions. Hine labeled his pictures "photo-interpretations," emphasizing his subjective involvement with his subjects; this approach became the model for many later documentary photographers, such as Sid Grossman and Ben Shahn.

Lisa Hostetler
International Center of Photography

TC said...

Child Labor and Lewis Hine - Part 1

TC said...

Child Labor and Lewis Hine - Part 2

Lewis Hine's pictures made a difference.

Increasingly pessimistic about prospects of there being a language in which "we can all get along" (Rodney Hill), still if there's any language that can even be called a language that would actually connect "everybody" anymore - that future probably strictly speaking none of our affair here but for the uses of the present, the only language in this discussion would have to be a picture language.

E Pound a grand campaigner for same, believed a picture language to be a map of Paradise.

Strange thang to be babbling about now that the looping back of the arc has caught us in a terrible deja vu echo of the Great Age of the Robber Barons, when America was either Totally Great, or going through a tunnel.

Hilton said...

Child Labor - Trump's dream of the good old days.

TC said...

Yes, I can almost spin it out in my imagination - an update of Swift's A Modest Proposal.

The new Earth complement to the Drumpf Space Force.

Kids - poor American kids - low class, no family SUV fleet parked in the driveway - well, maybe just the one, for quick runs to Walmart - who do all the work that used to be done by the people we're no longer going to let into the country.

Make those kids toil miserably til they drop, then scrape the tiny starved bodies off the sweatshop floor and feed 'em to the ever more massive Private Prison Population. All those annoying hungry mouths, maybe that'll shut 'em up, put those little freeloaders to work!

Everybody wins. Unless they don't.

Wooden Boy said...

the spoils -- the same -- once
again, over again
the same --

The spoils: both refuse and war profits.

TC said...

It all comes back round.

American 12-year-olds can't buy cigarettes. Why can they work in tobacco fields?